Biomedical waste segregation and their management in urban area of Gorakhpur: A survey for long term approach
Biomedical waste (BMW) generated from medical centers have become a serious health threat worldwide including India. Unsegregated and insensitive disposal of BMW can become a source of spreading serious diseases not only for hepatitis, tuberculosis, HIV but also the recent pandemic of COVID-19 among their handlers and society. Our investigation was carried out to assess the waste handling, their segregation, disposal and treatment system of hospital BMW in the various medical institutes’ established in Gorakhpur city. The study was conducted in accordance with the questionnaire as per guidelines of “BMW Management Rules, 2016” amended in 2018. We have found that almost 27 Metric tons of BMW were generated monthly by seven hospitals; in which, medical centers with the name of BRDMC generated 164.7 followed by NSCBDH, GSGC, DWH, LCH, REH and MMNH produced 33.8, 29.9, 20.7, 10.3, 7.9 and 4.3 quintals of wastes, respectively. They also generated 20.74%, 35.78%, 9.8%, 32.3%, 12.7%, 41.3% and 28.6% per day hazardous wastes in the above sequence of hospitals in comparison to non-hazardous wastes. A yellow colour container waste (a potential source of infection) was higher among the hospitals of BRDMC, GSGC, DWH and MMNC; whereas, red colour containers wastes (recyclable contaminated waste) was higher among NSCBDH, LCH and REH, respectively. Our surveyed hospitals produce approximately 10-40% of hazardous wastes daily. Proper guidelines of segregation and treatment are an essential component for reducing the risk of BMW generated infections. Continuous training and fixing the responsibility of medical staffs are the key criteria's for reducing the chance of contamination and per unit BMW generation.