Biodiversity Conservation in India: A Review
India is one of the 34 Mega biodiversity hotspots of the world. It is home for threatened and endemic species that have immense ecological and commercial value. Due to increased human population and overexploitation of natural resources biodiversity is under threat worldwide. Threats to species are principally due to decline and fragmentation of their habitat. Biodiversity, as measured by the number of plant and vertebrate species, is greatest in the Western Ghats and North East in India.
Biodiversity has several values such as economical, ecological, ethical, medicinal, aesthetical, social and many more. The present need of the hour is the sustainable use of biodiversity. Inventory only will identify the key issues of management of biodiversity which include a continuing process of searching and re-examining the early findings. Conservation of biodiversity is being done in the form of various legislations, the establishment of the protected area, Zoos and botanical gardens, gene Bank, seed bank etc. In this paper, the overview of Biodiversity and Its types, values, the status of biodiversity in India, causes of threats and various steps to be taken for the conservation of biodiversity have been discussed.