DNA Methylation: A Stabilizing and Regulatory Mechanism of Plant Genome
The immobile lifestyle of plants requires responses to adapt the environmental stress. Flexible epigenetic regulations are essential for reprogramming of plant gene expression. The overall phenotype and gene expression profile of an organism is controlled by mechanisms other than the normal mechanism of expression. DNA methylation is one of them which control many important cellular functions, such as transposon silencing, genome stability, cell identity maintenance and defense against exogenous DNAs. DNA methylation maintained by a set of enzymes named DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferases (DCMTases). In this paper, types, importance, mechanism, maintenance, and impact of DNA methylation on plant genome expression and transposition have been discussed. Methods to detect DNA methylation and CpG islands in plants genome has also been explored.