The Potentiality of Selected Strain of PGPR: Azotobacter, for Sustainable Agriculture in India
In modern agriculture, large numbers of pesticides are being used to inhibit pests to get maximum crop production .The rapidly growing industrialization along with an increasing population has resulted in the accumulation of a wide variety of chemicals. One promising treatment method is to exploit the ability of microorganisms to remove pollutants from contaminated sites. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of free-living bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere and contribute to enhance the growth and yield of crop plants. In the last few decades, many microorganisms show positive effect on plant development. Azotobacter has been used as a potential nitrogenous fertilizer to increase crop growth. Azotobacter has the capacity of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, it include the production of plant hormones like auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins, nitrogen fixation, These qualities makes Azotobacter the most successful and widespread group among the PGPR, as well as they produce substances that change the plant growth and morphology. Co-inoculants of Azotobacter with Rhizobium has been reduced water stress and dual inoculation of Azospirillium and Azotobacter significantly increased the concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Potassium, Megnisium, Nitrogen and total soluble sugars (TSS). Azotobacter increases the tolerance capacity of plants. Azotobacter inoculum with high yielding EPS (exopolysaccharides) and high nitrogen fixing ability can be utilized to satisfy the future demand of augmented crop production attributed to increase plant growth promoting agents.