Variable impacts on Environment during Construction and Operation of Dam Projects
Dams are playing a significant role in utilizing the resources of water and have a larger impact on the river ecosystem. It has an enormous deal of positive and negative effects on the environment in addition to their benefits like managing stream regimes, as a result preventing floods, obtaining domestic and irrigation water from the stored water and producing energy. The acute and chronic effects due to the construction of the dam are various and categorized according to the area, the services provided by the dams to the community and also its unsocial impacts, advantageous and detrimental impacts on nearby communities and to the aquatic environment These consequences of the construction of any dam project may be commanded in a rigorous and complicated approach resembling climatic, hydraulic, biological, communal, intellectual, archaeological etc. The role of Dams and their benefits are much more and impact directly in our social and environmental life, but it is also a key point that we have to focus about the negative effects of these developmental activities and major and minor dam construction projects by the way of water resource engineering and sustainable development. Dams have the majority of significant functions in utilizing water resources. All through the history of the world, dams have been used successfully in collecting, storing and managing water needed to uphold civilization. Dams have a great deal of affirmative and pessimistic effects on the environment. The advantages are also varying from modest to many folds to the community like controlling stream regime as a result of preventing floods, obtaining domestic and irrigation water from stored water and generating energy from hydropower. Whereas dam endows with significant benefit to our civilization, their impact on the surrounding includes resettlement and relocation, socioeconomic impact, environmental concerns, sedimentation issue, safety aspects etc. Over and above their incredibly important communal and ecological benefits, it is significant to moderate the negative effects of the dam on the environment regarding sustainable development.